The known exceptions were Marines assigned to the Office of Strategic Services, better known as the OSS, who were captured in by German forces while engaged in covert activities in company with the French underground. Of the remainder of the Marines who were captured, died en route to or in prison camp, and men, who were known to have been captured but are otherwise unaccounted for, are presumed to have died. A total of 1, captured Marines returned to the jurisdiction of the United States; a very small number of these were escapees, and the rest were liberated at the end of the war. The rest, mostly aviation personnel, fell captive to the Japanese after the beginning of Marine air operations in the Allied South Pacific drive.
But for a disease that has devastated humans for millennia, leprosy remains enigmatic.
Where did it originate, and how has it followed people seemingly everywhere they've gone? The first comprehensive genetic comparison of the bacterial strains that cause the disease is providing some answers.
On pagemolecular microbiologist Stewart Cole of the Pasteur Institute in Paris and colleagues use rare DNA differences among leprosy strains culled from various corners of the world to infer an East Figure 1 Worldwide toll.
Leprosy persists among people in poor regions, such as these women in Afghanistan. Their findings also challenge popular theories of how leprosy spread and indicate that colonialism and the slave trade helped bring the sickness to West Africa and much of the New World.
Confirmed reports of leprosy first appear around B. By medieval times, cultures around the globe were familiar with the deforming lesions and decaying flesh that resulted in lepers being burned at the stake or carted off to die in remote colonies.
Antibiotics helped bring the disease under control in the s, but it persists in poor regions, and there are more thannew cases reported each year. Scientists rely on genetic differences among strains to trace the history of a microbe, but seven strains of the leprosy bacterium, collected by Cole's group from an array of countries, had practically identical genomes.
Eventually they found subtle DNA sequence mutations called single nucleotide polymorphisms that allowed them to break a total of worldwide strains into four types. Most Central Asian strains were of the type-1 variety, whereas type 2 predominated in Ethiopia, type 3 in Europe, North Africa, and the Americas, and type 4 in West Africa and the Caribbean.
The mutation patterns among the strains suggest that leprosy originated in either Central Asia or East Africa, says Cole, who favors the latter location because type 2 is the rarest and, thus, likely the oldest.
It's more likely, he argues, that the soldiers contracted the bug in the Near East. Another striking finding is the apparent effect of European emigration and the West African slave trade on the spread of leprosy.
Still, Mark Achtman, a microbial population geneticist at the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology in Berlin, says that this new study is bringing us closer to understanding leprosy's past. Those natures have stayed relatively constant thruout our anthropology inspite of extended lifespans, history and changes in life-style and the quality of life.
There is no wonder, consequently, that we mate and 'love forever! In a new book, a marriage historian says romance wrecked family stability.
By Barbara Kantrowitz For the true commitment-phobe, living among the Na people in southwestern China would be paradise.
The Na are the only known society that completely shuns marriage. Instead, says Stephanie Coontz in her new book, "Marriage, a History," brothers help sisters raise the children they conceive through casual sex with nonfamily members incest is strictly taboo.
Will we all be like the Na in the future? With divorce and illegitimacy rates still high, the institution of marriage seems headed for obsolescence in much of the world. The only hope is accepting these changes and figuring out how to work with them.
The decline of marriage "doesn't have to spell catastrophe," Coontz says. Throughout human history, people married to arrange child rearing, pass on property and organize life.
Until relatively recently, most of these alliances were not legally sanctioned but rather informal arrangements accepted by society at large. The choice of partner was rarely left to the couple; parents and other respected community elders made the match.For a celebrity-obsessed culture whose world is falling apart, the next logical choice for its leader would seem to be a reality TV show star who says he can restore the illusion of the American dream and build a great wall to keep all the riff-raff out.
promising economic rewards for those industrious enough to resist falling too deeply into reveries of Polynesian indulgence. This was the “production of an alternative dream,” a dream that was not a precise ethnographic project of carefully measured faces, bodies, and bodily gestures, but a model of paradise as a fantasy into which the.
An Overview of the Dying American Dream in Rewards and Opportunities by Gregory Mantsios ( words, 1 pages) A Dying Dream The American Dream is the idea that all people in this country have a chance to achieve success and create a better life for their children.
A Dying Dream The American Dream is the idea that all people in this country have a chance to achieve success and create a better life for their children. I began writing this paper with the notion that the dream could still be alive, but after trying to support this claim I came to the con.
Jan 07, · Reward Yourself.
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