With the resulting recession, many governments of the wealthiest nations in the world have resorted to extensive bail-out and rescue packages for the remaining large banks and financial institutions while imposing harsh austerity measures on themselves.
The reason is that central banks react to variables, such as inflation and the output gap, which are endogenous to monetary policy shocks. Endogeneity implies a correlation between regressors and the error term, and hence, an asymptotic bias.
In principle, Instrumental Variables IV estimation can solve this endogeneity problem. In practice, IV estimation poses challenges as the validity of potential instruments also depends on other economic relationships.
We argue in favor of OLS estimation of monetary policy rules. To that end, we show analytically in the three-equation New Keynesian model that the asymptotic OLS bias is proportional to the fraction of the variance of regressors accounted for by monetary policy shocks.
Using Monte Carlo simulation, we then show that this relationship also holds in a quantitative model of the U. As monetary policy shocks explain only a small fraction of the variance of regressors typically included in monetary policy rules, the endogeneity bias is small.
Using simulations, we show that, for realistic sample sizes, the OLS estimator of monetary policy parameters outperforms IV estimators.The effects of foreign aid on economic growth in developing countries Masha Rahnama, Fadi Fawaz, Kaj Gittings The Journal of Developing Areas, Volume 51, Number 3, Summer , pp.
The Effect of foreign aid on economic growth in Tanzania. effect of foreign aid on economic gr owth with regard to A three gap model of foreign transfers and the GDP growth in developing.
Preliminary versions of economic research. Did Consumers Want Less Debt? Consumer Credit Demand Versus Supply in the Wake of the Financial Crisis. attheheels.com provides insights into global issues that may be misrepresented but are all closely related. List of topics covered include social, political, economic and environmental issues, including human rights, economy, trade, globalization, poverty, environment and health related issues. Decades of research regarding the effect of foreign aid on economic growth in less developed countries have produced inconclusive results. Research in this literature has been plagued by a variety of empirical impediments. Among them, measurement and endogeneity issues, sparse sets of control.
Many resource-strapped developing country governments seek international aid, but when that assistance is channeled through domestic civil society, it can threaten their political control.
INTRODUCTION Development has meant many things, depending on the era and context.
For the scope of this paper, development refers to economic growth that leads to increased standard of living. Development aid is given by governments through individual countries' international aid agencies and through multilateral institutions such as the World Bank, and by individuals through development attheheels.com donor nations, development aid also has strategic value; improved living conditions can positively effects global security and economic growth.
A look at the effects of foreign aid from rich countries on developing countries. This article looks at the low quantity and quality of aid from donors.