History of Jazz and Classical Music By: These choices not only include a multitude of artists, but also a wide diversity of music categories.
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July Learn how and when to remove this template message Given the wide range of styles in European classical music, from Medieval plainchant sung by monks to Classical and Romantic symphonies for orchestra from the s and s to avant-garde atonal compositions for solo piano from the s, it is difficult to list characteristics that can be attributed to all works of that type.
However, there are characteristics that classical music contains that few or no other genres of music contain,  such as the use of music notation [ clarification needed ] and the performance of complex forms of solo instrumental works e.
Furthermore, while the symphony did not exist prior to the late 18th century, the symphony ensemble —and the works written for it —have become a defining feature of classical music.
This score typically determines details of rhythm, pitch, and, where two or more musicians whether singers or instrumentalists are involved, how the various parts are coordinated.
The written quality of the music has enabled a high level of complexity within them: Musical notation enables s-era performers to sing a choral work from the s Renaissance era or a s Baroque concerto with many of the features of the music the melodies, History of jazz and classical music essay, forms, and rhythms being reproduced.
As well, in the Baroque era, many works that were designed for basso continuo accompaniment do not specify which instruments should play the accompaniment or exactly how the chordal instrument harpsichord, lute, etc.
The performer and the conductor have a range of options for musical expression and interpretation of a scored piece, including the phrasing of melodies, the time taken during fermatas held notes or pauses, and the use or choice not to use of effects such as vibrato or glissando these effects are possible on various stringed, brass and woodwind instruments and with the human voice.
Although Classical music in the s has lost most of its tradition for musical improvisationfrom the Baroque era to the Romantic era, there are examples of performers who could improvise in the style of their era.
In the Baroque era, organ performers would improvise preludeskeyboard performers playing harpsichord would improvise chords from the figured bass symbols beneath the bass notes of the basso continuo part and both vocal and instrumental performers would improvise musical ornaments.
During the Romantic era, Beethoven would improvise at the piano. Instrumentation and vocal practices[ edit ] See also: Woodwind sectionBrass sectionString sectionPercussion sectionand Keyboard section The instruments currently used in most classical music were largely invented before the midth century often much earlier and systematised in the 18th and 19th centuries.
They consist of the instruments found in an orchestra or in a concert bandtogether with several other solo instruments such as the pianoharpsichordand organ.
The symphony orchestra is the most widely known medium for classical music  [ not in citation given ] and includes members of the stringwoodwindbrassand percussion families of instruments. The concert band consists of members of the woodwind, brass, and percussion families. It generally has a larger variety and number of woodwind and brass instruments than the orchestra but does not have a string section.
However, many concert bands use a double bass. The vocal practices changed over the classical period, from the single line monophonic Gregorian chant done by monks in the Medieval period to the complex, polyphonic choral works of the Renaissance and subsequent periods, which used multiple independent vocal melodies at the same time.
Medieval music[ edit ] Many of the instruments used to perform medieval music still exist, but in different forms. Medieval instruments included the flutethe recorder and plucked string instruments like the lute.
As well, early versions of the organ and fiddle or vielle existed. Medieval instruments in Europe had most commonly been used singly, often self accompanied with a drone note, or occasionally in parts. From at least as early as the 13th century through the 15th century there was a division of instruments into haut loud, shrill, outdoor instruments and bas quieter, more intimate instruments.
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. April Learn how and when to remove this template message Many instruments originated during the Renaissance; others were variations of, or improvements upon, instruments that had existed previously.
Some have survived to the present day; others have disappeared, only to be re-created in order to perform music on period instruments.
As in the modern day, instruments may be classified as brass, strings, percussion, and woodwind.
Brass instruments in the Renaissance were traditionally played by professionals who were members of Guilds and they included the slide trumpetthe wooden cornetthe valveless trumpet and the sackbut. Stringed instruments included the violthe rebecthe harp-like lyrethe hurdy-gurdythe lutethe guitarthe citternthe bandoraand the orpharion.
Keyboard instruments with strings included the harpsichord and the virginals. Woodwind instruments included the double reed shawmthe reed pipethe bagpipethe transverse flutethe recorderthe dulcianand the crumhorn.
Vocal music in the Renaissance is noted for the flourishing of an increasingly elaborate polyphonic style. The principal liturgical forms which endured throughout the entire Renaissance period were masses and motets, with some other developments towards the end, especially as composers of sacred music began to adopt secular forms such as the madrigal for their own designs.
Towards the end of the period, the early dramatic precursors of opera such as monody, the madrigal comedyand the intermedio are seen.Crumb’s love for simpler times is more than the passion of an aficionado.
It is the flip side of his satire, a genre that cannot flourish as a critique of the present without a corresponding vision of a golden age. The AllMusic Blog provides news, interviews, opinion, free music streams, downloads and other information of interest to a music fan.
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One of the most popular pages on the Internet for intermediate to very advanced piano solo, contains jazz transcriptions from current and past masters, and arrangements by these top jazz .
The music of this era began with a pre-classical, somewhat transitional music style called Rococo which was a reaction to the rigidity and seriousness of Baroque music 3 / Drexel Music Program Essay. Getting to Gemütlichkeit: German History and Culture in Southeast Louisiana.
By Laura Westbrook [ gemütlichkeit: a feeling of belonging and well-being; contentment with one's surroundings; enjoying the fellowship of others; mutual appreciation and understanding ] Background.
Louisiana's German citizens constitute both one of the oldest and one of the newest populations in the state.