Jagadish chandra bose essay help

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Jagadish chandra bose essay help

They have different varna origins based on the region and consequently different social and ritual status.

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Even in the same region, such as parts of north and western India, different groups have different ritual status. There are several groups of Kayasthas - a larger group of northern India who claim descent from the sons of Chitragupta.

Bengali Kayasthas are considered an offshoot of the former group, claiming lineage from migrants to Bengal from the ancient city of Kannauj who came at the request of Sena Dynasty kings in the 10th century. They are called 'Chitraguptavanshi' as they claim descent from Chitragupta.

A smaller group found in Maharashtra claims descent from a Kshatriya warrior named Chandra Sen and this is not considered part of the Chitragupta group.

jagadish chandra bose essay help

There are several theories of their origin. According to an article in India TodayBrahmanical religious texts refer to these chitraguptavanshi Kayasthas as a caste of scribes, recruited in the beginning from the BrahminKshatriya and Vaishya castes, but eventually forming distinct subcastes in northern and western India.

They have therefore also been mentioned as a "mixed caste", combining Brahman-Shudra lower caste and sometimes Kshatriya as well. Originally the professions of Kayastha scribe and Vaidya physician were not restricted and could be followed by people of different varnas including the brahmanas.

So there is every probability that a number of brahmana families were mixed up with members of other varnas in forming the present Kayastha and Vaidya communities of Bengal. As per Brahminical opinions and texts, they arose solely from the Kshatriya varna. This as well as their 'vedokta' has been formally ratified by the verdicts of the Brahmin councils of Pune and Varanasi, by Bajirao II and finally the Shankaracharya himself.

jagadish chandra bose essay help

Only the chitraguptavanshi kayasthas have been discussed on this page. History Classical India Rajendra Prasad centerwho went on to become the first president of India, alongside Jawaharlal Nehru and Bhulabhai Desai at the All India Congress Committee Session in April Brahmanical religious texts refer to the Chitraguptavanshi Kayasthas as a caste responsible for writing secular documents and maintaining records from the 7th century onward.

One of the most notable north-Indian Kayasthas of the Mughal period was Raja Todar MalEmperor Akbar's finance minister and one of the court's nine Navaratnaswho is credited with establishing the Mughal revenue system.

Indeed, Muslim rulers had from a very early time confirmed the Kayasthas in their ancient role as landholders and political intermediaries. North Indian Kayasthas that rose to prominence since independence, include the country's first presidentRajendra Prasadand its second prime ministerLal Bahadur Shastri.

In this effort, they are aligning themselves with different political parties to gain political and economical advantages and are now demanding 33 percent reservation in Government jobs. According to some accounts, they are a literate and educated class of Kshatriyas, and they have been referred to as a twice-born caste.

During the British rule, the Bengali Kayasthas, along with the Bengali Brahmins and Baidyaswere considered as Bhadralok, a term coined in Bengal for the ' Gentry ' or 'respectable people'- based on refined culture, prestige, education etc.

The dispute is about British era law courts. Please help to ensure that disputed statements are reliably sourced. See the relevant discussion on the talk page.

February Learn how and when to remove this template message The last census of the British Raj in India classified them as an 'upper caste' i. Dwija and the final British Raj law case involving their varna in placed them into the Kashtriya varna. Rowe's account that later scholars disagreed withduring the British Raj era, certain law cases led to courts classifying Kayasthas as shudras, based largely upon the theories of Herbert Hope Risley who had conducted extensive studies on castes and tribes of the Bengal Presidency.

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According to Rowe, the Kayasthas of Bengal, Bombay and the United Provinces repeatedly challenged this classification by producing a flood of books, pamphlets, family histories and journals to pressurize the government for recognizing them as Kshatriya and to reform the caste practices in the directions of sanskritisation and westernisation.

Bellenoit gives the details of the individual British Raj era law cases and concludes that since the kayasthas are a non-cohesive group and not a single caste, their varna was resolved in the cases that came up by taking into account regional differences and customs followed by that particular caste.

Bellenoit also disagrees with W. Rowe by showing that Herbert Hope Risley's theories were in fact used to ultimately classify them as Kshatriyas by the British courts.

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The first case began in in JaunpurUttar Pradesh with a property dispute where the plaintiff was considered an 'illegitimate child' by the defendants, a north-Indian Kayastha family. The British court denied inheritance to the child, citing that Kayasthas are Dvija"twice-born" or "upper-caste" and that the illegitimate children of Dwijas have no rights to inheritance.

In the next case in in the Allahabad High Courta north Indian Kayastha widow was denied adoption rights as she was an upper-caste i. However, in a adoption case as well as a property dispute, Calcutta High Court argued that Bengali kayasthas have started using names like ' Das ' and classified the Bengali Kayasthas as shudras - although the court did acknowledge their Kshatriya origin.

Finally, in a property dispute case in Patna inthe Patna court characterized both the and Calcutta courts rulings as inconclusive and ultimately ruled that the kayasthas were of Kshatriya origin and hence twice born or dwija.

The Patna court cited smritis and Puranasseveral colonial ethnologists, such as William Crooke and Herbert Hope Risley, and used their qualified endorsements on the dwija origins of Kayasthas.

The British census of also lists Kayasthas as one of the upper twice-born castes.24/7 Customer Support. We care about our customers and strive to give you the best experience.

Call us any time with any questions or concerns. Feb 17,  · Anti Essays offers essay examples to help students with their essay writing. 13 | Words Essay for Kids on Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose | Jagadish Chandra Bose was born on 30 November, in Mymensingh (now Bangladesh).

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He had his. Subhas Chandra Bose, President of the Indian National Congress () and founder of the Indian National Army During the British Raj, Kayasthas continued to proliferate in public administration, qualifying for the highest executive and judicial offices open to Indians.

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