About Temple Grandin Dr. Grandin did not talk until she was three and a half years old. She was fortunate to get early speech therapy.
Please help improve it by rewriting it in an encyclopedic style. March Learn how and when to remove this template message Criminology is the study of crime and criminal justice, and it covers a multitude of topics, but according to those of the feminist school of criminology the principal theories of criminality have been developed from male subjects, have been validated on male subjects, and focus on male victimization.
This involves considering how women came to occupy subservient roles, the nature of male privilegeand the means whereby the discourses that constitute the power of patriarchy can be redirected to transform society. As it is, gender role expectations continue to define acceptable behaviors and attitudes for females and males; deviation from these expectations may result in a variety of societal sanctions ranging from verbal abuse to violence to incarceration.
These roles are a powerful form of social control maintained through informal and formal mechanisms. Heidensohnsuggests a male-biased control theory: In any event, women are more afraid to go out of the home after dark because they fear aggressive male behavior.
Further, those of the feminist school of criminology claim that men are the dominant group and the standard of normality and have maintained inequality through control of the definition of deviance and of the institutions of social control.
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Feminists waves may have brought greater liberation to women, but have not changed their pattern of crime. Women are still much less likely to commit crime; this includes both blue and white collar crime.
Feminists now call for the inclusion of women into criminological teaching, research, theory and publications. The disqualification of women from the criminological field was evident in criminological texts as it was assumed the man could speak for her.
In criminology, just as in society, School is a temple of learning essay was the center of the universe and women were merely their complement. It has been argued that methodology has been gendered Oakley ;with quantitative methods traditionally being associated with words such as positivism, scientific, objectivity, statistics and masculinity, while qualitative methods have generally been associated with interpretivism, non-scientific, subjectivity and femininity.
These associations have led some feminist researchers to criticize or even reject the quantitative approach, arguing that it is in direct conflict with the aims of feminist research, though other have argued that this rejection is merely because those feminist writers did not like the results of the quantitative analysis.
The statistics generated by crime reporting show that fewer women commit crimes, and far fewer women are victims of crime, but there has been little research to explain this difference.
Victorian America viewed women in accordance with inflexible ideals of femininity, and the male-dominated criminal courts were inhibited by notions of chivalry when required to apply justice to women whom cultural norms had determined to be "pure, passive and dependent", and whom, leading experts claimed, seldom committed crimes.
Later, Otto Pollak claimed that men were socialised to treat women in a fatherly and protective manner. Female offenders were like their mothers and wives, and the male judiciary could not imagine them behaving in a criminal way.
Women were therefore protected: Chivalry had only positive effects on women who were essentially more deceitful than men, and were the instigators rather than the perpetrators of crime. Less flatteringly, The Criminality of Women also claimed that women prefer professions like maids, nurses, teachers, and homemakers so that they can engage in undetectable crime.
He also thought women were especially subject to certain mental diseases like kleptomania and nymphomania. The most investigated "difference" between the sexes was biological.
Cesare Lombroso identified the female physiognomy thought most likely to determine criminal propensity. This was the new science of "criminal anthropology" matching the general fascination with Darwinism and physical anthropologywhere scientists sought pathological and atavistic causes for criminal behaviour.
While he credited criminal women as being stronger than men, the consequence was that prison would hardly affect them at all. Lombroso concluded true female criminals were rare and showed few signs of degeneration because they had "evolved less than men due to the inactive nature of their lives".
Thomas published Sex and Society in which he argued that men and women possessed essentially different personality traits.
Men were more criminal because of their biologically determined active natures. Women were more passive and less criminally capable. In The Unadjusted Girl he argued that women have a greater capacity to love than men and they suffer more when they do not receive social approval and affection.
The "unadjusted girls" are those who use their sexuality in a socially unacceptable way to get what they want from life. The female criminal forgoes the conventional rewards of domesticity by refusing to accept prevailing modes of sexuality and seeks excitement, wealth, and luxury: More modern theories[ edit ] This section does not cite any sources.
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July Learn how and when to remove this template message Strain theories are criticised by feminists as betraying a double standard. When male offenders commit a crime under certain conditions of opportunity blockage, their commission of crime is somehow seen as a "normal" or functional response.
When women commit crime, Strain Theory views it as some sort of "weakness". Naffine probably represents the best example of this critique, but there are other critiques, such as the characterisation of females as "helpmates" or facilitators of crime in the Strain Theories of Albert K. Cohenand Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin.JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources.
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