Definition[ edit ] A social construct or construction concerns the meaning, notion, or connotation placed on an object or event by a society, and adopted by the inhabitants of that society with respect to how they view or deal with the object or event. A major focus of social constructionism is to uncover the ways in which individuals and groups participate in the construction of their perceived social reality. It involves looking at the ways social phenomena are developed, institutionalizedknown, and made into tradition by humans.
It has become well established in the US and internationally, and it has also been widely applied in education. Definition of Reality Therapy Reality Therapy is a particular approach in psychotherapy and counseling.
Reality therapy was developed by William Glassera psychiatrist. Glasser believes that people who are behaving in inappropriate ways do not need help to find a defense for their behavior. Instead, they need help to acknowledge their behavior as being inappropriate and then to learn how to act in a more logical and productive manner.
Reality therapy attempts to help people control the world around them more effectively so that they are better able to satisfy their needs. The Reality Therapy approach to counseling and problem-solving focuses on the here-and-now of the client and how to create a better future, instead of concentrating at length on the past.
Typically, clients seek to discover what they really want and whether what they are currently doing how they are choosing to behave is actually bringing them nearer to, or further away from, that goal.
Involvement Establishing a relationship with the client is believed to be the most important factor in all types of therapy.
Without this relationship, the other steps will not be effective. Behavior Emotions are a source of information about how we are doing and whether we are happy with what is going on in our lives.
But it is very hard to choose and to change our emotions directly. It is easier to change our thinking and our behavior.
So Reality Therapists approach changing "what we do" as a key to changing how we feel and to getting what we want. Current behavior and evaluating your behavior While traditional psychoanalytic and counseling often focus on past events, Reality Therapy and Choice theory solutions lie in the present and the future.
The focus of the practitioner of Reality Therapy is to learn what needs to be learned about the past but to move as quickly as feasible to empowering the client to satisfy his or her needs and wants in the present and in the future.
The therapist asks the client to make a value judgment about his current behavior which presumably is not helping, otherwise the client may not have negative consequences from behavior motivating enough to seek therapy. In many cases the therapist must press the client to examine the effects of his behavior, but it is important that the judgment be made by the client and not the therapist.
Make plans and perform actions Plans for making better choices are at the heart of successful Reality Therapy. The counselor helps the client to make a workable plan to get what he or she wants.
The client is likely to need some suggestions and prompting from the therapist, but it helps if the plan itself comes from the client. It is important that the initial steps be small enough that the client is almost certain to succeed, in order to build confidence.
Commitment to the plan The client must make a commitment to carry out the plan. This is important because many clients will do things for the therapist that they would not do just for themselves. In some cases it can be helpful to make the commitment in writing. The therapist insists that the client either carry out the plan, or come up with a more feasible plan.
If the therapist maintains a good relationship with the client, it can be very hard to resist carrying out a plan that the client has agreed would be feasible.
Control Control is considered a key issue in Reality Therapy. To meet their needs human beings need control. Control can be very positive and helpful but it gets us into trouble in two primary ways: At the very heart of Choice Theory is the core belief that the only person I can really control is myself.
Practical Principles of Reality Therapy: Focus on the present and avoid discussing the past because all human problems are caused by unsatisfying present relationships. Avoid discussing symptoms and complaints as much as possible since these are often the ineffective ways that counselees choose to deal with and hold on to unsatisfying relationships.
Understand the concept of total behavior, which means focus on what counselees can do directly-act and think. Spend less time on what they cannot do directly; that is, changing their feelings and physiology. Feelings and physiology can be changed indirectly, but only if there is a change in the acting and thinking.Reality can be defined in a way that links it to worldviews or parts of them (conceptual frameworks): Reality is the totality of all things, structures (actual and conceptual), events (past and present) and phenomena, whether observable or not.
Reality Therapy is based on a concept called Choice Theory (originally called Control Theory). It has become well established in the US and internationally, and it has also been widely applied in education. Conversely, if there is a separate and distinct (non-subjective) immaterial reality, and the aforementioned concepts of character, the Good, and morals etc exist as aspects of this reality, then the existence of objective, absolute concepts is possible (maybe even necessary), since the nature of reality is not contingent, dependent on subjective opinion.
Conversely, if there is a separate and distinct (non-subjective) immaterial reality, and the aforementioned concepts of character, the Good, and morals etc exist as aspects of this reality, then the existence of objective, absolute concepts is possible (maybe even necessary), since the nature of reality is not contingent, dependent on subjective opinion.
Concept and Reality in Early Buddhist Thought [Bhikkhu Nanananda] on attheheels.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. This work focuses on two important but controversial terms found in the Buddha's discourses - papanaca and papancasanna-sankha.
The author sees these terms as referring to the mind's conceptual proliferation/5(6). Major Theories On The Concept Of Reality Learning theory is one of the major theories in the concept of reality which aims at guiding people to perceive the existence of various aspects.
As reality is attributed to the existence of something be it an object, living organism or idea, the ability of an individual to understand its existence if paramount to the learning theory.