However, much has happened since it went up, including the Blogger outage.
Democratic ideals of integration for international and European nations are as old as the modern nation-state. In the Renaissancemedieval trade flourished in organisations like the Hanseatic Leaguestretching from English towns like Boston and Londonto FrankfurtStockholm and Riga.
These traders developed the lex mercatoriaspreading basic norms of good faith and fair dealing through their business.
Inthe Protestant Reformation triggered a hundred years of crisis and instability. Martin Luther nailed a list of demands to the church door of WittenbergKing Henry VIII declared a unilateral split from Rome with the Act of Supremacyand conflicts flared across the Holy Roman Empire until the Peace of Augsburg guaranteed each principality the right to its chosen religion cuius regio, eius religio.
This unstable settlement unravelled in the Thirty Years' War —killing around a quarter of the population in central Europe. The Treaty of Westphaliawhich brought peace according to a system of international law inspired by Hugo Grotiusis generally acknowledged as the beginning of the nation-state system.
Even then, the English Civil War broke out and the tensions did not fully end until the Glorious Revolution ofby Parliament inviting William and Mary of Orange from Holland to the throne, and passing the Bill of Rights In William Penna Quaker from London who founded Pennsylvania in North America, argued that to prevent ongoing wars in Europe a "European dyet, or parliament" was needed.
The Treaty of Romesigned in Musei Capitolini was the first international treaty that envisaged social, economic and political integration, within limited fields, for nation-states.
To "save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice. Also, the Council of Europeformed by the Treaty of Londonadopted a European Convention on Human Rightsoverseen by a new transnational court in Strasbourg in Its theory was simply that war would be impossibly costly if ownership and production of every country's economy was mixed together.
It established an Assembly now the European Parliament to represent the people, a Council of Ministers for the member states, a Commission as the executive, and a Court of Justice to interpret the law.
Although Stalin died in and the new general secretary Nikita Khrushchev had denounced him in Soviet tanks crushed a democratic Hungarian Revolution ofand repressed every other attempt of its people to win democracy and human rights.
The EU evolved from the Coal and Steel Community of 6 member states, to a union of 28 member states in A referendum in the UK of Based on the Spaak Report ofit sought to break down all barriers to trade in a common market for goods, services, labour and capital, and prevent distortion of competition and regulate areas of common interest like agriculture, energy and transport.
Spain also applied and was rejected as it was still led by the Franco dictatorship.
The same year, the Court of Justice proclaimed that the Community constituted a "new legal order of international law". Shortly after, de Gaulle boycotted the Commission, which he believed was pressing supranationalism too far. The Luxembourg compromise in agreed that France or other countries could veto issues of "very important national interest", particularly relating to the Common Agricultural Policyinstead of making decisions by " qualified majority ".
But after the May events in France and de Gaulle 's resignation, the way was free for the United Kingdom, Ireland and Denmark to join in Norway had rejected joining in a referendumwhile the UK confirmed its membership in a referendum.
The dictators of Greece and Portugal were deposed inand Spain's dictator died inenabling their accession in and Inthe European Parliament had its first direct elections, reflecting a growing consensus that the EEC should be less a union of member states, and more a union of peoples.
The Single European Act increased the number of treaty issues in which qualified majority voting rather than consensus would be used to legislate, as a way to accelerate trade integration.
Meanwhile, inthe Soviet Union 's Mikhail Gorbachev announced policies of "transparency" and "restructuring" glasnost and perestroika. This revealed the depths of corruption and waste.
In , the Euro (European Currency) was introduced in 11 countries for commercial and financial transactions only, notes and coins would come later. The Euro countries were Belgium, Germany, Spain, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Austria, Portugal and Finland (Greece later incorporated the Euro in ). Euro Crisis and Social Inequality Essay - The EU or The European Union was established in , it presently establishes a shared market among its current 28 member countries that are located in Europe. The Maastricht Treaty (officially the Treaty on European Union) was signed on 7 February by the members of the European Community in Maastricht, Netherlands to further European integration. On 9–10 December , the same city hosted the European Council which drafted the treaty. The treaty founded the European Union and established its pillar structure which stayed in place until the.
These elections, in which anti-communist candidates won a striking victory, inaugurated a series of peaceful anti-communist revolutions in Central and Eastern Europe that eventually culminated in the fall of communism. In Novemberprotestors in Berlin began taking down the Berlin Wallwhich became a symbol of the collapse of the Iron Curtainwith most of Eastern Europe declaring independence and moving to hold democratic elections by Sinceanti-austerity protests have flared across Europe, particularly in AthensGreece, demanding the European Central Bank and Commission upholds social and economic rights.
The Treaty of Maastricht renamed the EEC as the " European Union ", and expanded its powers to include a social chapterset up a European Exchange Rate Mechanismand limit government spending. The UK initially opted out of the social provisions, and then monetary union after the Black Wednesday crisis where speculators bet against the pound.
Sweden, Finland and Austria joined inbut Norway again chose not to after a referenduminstead remaining part of the European Economic Areaabiding by most EU law, but without any voting rights.The Eurozone is an economic union within the larger European Union; it is made up of 17 countries that have adopted the Euro as their official legal tender.
These 17 countries include France, Germany, Italy, Greece and Spain. Nov 01, · Endangered Currency.
First Greece -- then Ireland, Italy, Spain and Portugal: The European common currency has come under pressure from large national debts and the effects of the global financial. The European Monetary Union (EMU) - The Euro as a Single Currency Words | 7 Pages Customs duties between European countries started to come down steadily in the early s and were abolished in with the introduction of a customs union and the implementation of the common external tariff.
As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria.
Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo. Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from attheheels.com In , the Euro (European Currency) was introduced in 11 countries for commercial and financial transactions only, notes and coins would come later.
The Euro countries were Belgium, Germany, Spain, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Austria, Portugal and Finland (Greece later incorporated the Euro in ). The European Union as a Model For Globalization - The world is becoming a smaller community through technological advances and international travel opportunities that make communication and interaction with others around the world a common occurrence.